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Medical Virology L1-10 Flashcards
Product Highlights Proceedings of an international symposium held in Irvine, California, October , About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. This year marks the tenth anniversary of the International Symposium on Medical Virology.
To harvest the virus, the top of the egg shell — the part covering the air sac — is removed. We used to have a special tool to do this, which was placed over the egg. When the handle of this tool is squeezed, it makes a neat crack around the top of the egg. It was then easy to remove the flap of shell with tweezers. The shell membrane and chorioallantoic membrane are pierced with a pipette which is then used to remove the allantoic fluid — about 10 ml per egg.
Sufficient virus may be produced in one or two eggs depending on the viral strain to produce one 15 microgram dose of vaccine. We used to grow so much influenza virus that a large walk-in warm room was used as an egg incubator. When you opened the door of the incubator and heard peeping, it meant that someone had left unused eggs too long and they had hatched. Then you were left with the task of catching the evasive chicks. Yes, this is not necessarily scientific evidence created in a lab but does it make the fact any less true?
As Dr. This country is a poor example for health to say the least. We come in 49 on infant mortality rate among nations. This is up from years past…so we are actually getting worse…please use your heads. Profvrr , nice look at the procedure. We enjoyed the more practical questions and comments. We as a species are doing some quite foolish things contrary to our survival as a species. How do viruses compare? It is surprising that over a 2 year period no one asked about why the points of injection and placement of viruses were chosen to be different for different viruses. Is there a pattern among groups of viruses or other reasons?
The irony of an anti vaccine psychopath talking about brainwashed parents harming their children made me laugh, hard. Go back to the dark ages you hippie twat, and take your pseudoscientific woo peddling with you. Your kind has been proven wrong time and time again by facts and science, your arguments are anecdotal and illustrate logical fallacy, and you all tend to believe in grandiose big pharma conspiracy theories and show severe signs of mental illness. Now sit the fuck back down and go die of chicken pox you mole.
You left out the most important part of the magic; what is done with the grown virus to turn it into a vaccine? How is the dosage of the grown virus determined for the inoculation itself?
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B, I hope you line up every single fucking yr. Or will you be a sheepie in denial? Check this out. Smallpox, polio, tetanus, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, diphtheria and the list goes on. All of these diseases in past causes thousands and even millions a horrific deaths and for you to just ignore that part of history as false is truly insulting to your own intellect.
There was a time when 50 million people died from the flu, smallpox destroyed civilisations and stepping on a rusty piece of metal often resulted in death, this was not that long ago either. There is no conspiracy, there is just scientists trying to save lives. While plant viruses and bacteriophages can be grown comparatively easily, animal viruses normally require a living host animal, which complicates their study immensely.
In it was shown that influenza virus could be grown in fertilized chicken eggs, a method that is still used today to produce vaccines. In , Max Theiler managed to grow the yellow fever virus in chicken eggs and produced a vaccine from an attenuated virus strain; this vaccine saved millions of lives and is still being used today.source
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The Hershey—Chase experiment in showed that only DNA and not protein enters a bacterial cell upon infection with bacteriophage T2. Transduction of bacteria by bacteriophages was first described in the same year.
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In John F. Enders , Thomas Weller and Frederick Robbins reported growth of poliovirus in cultured human embryonal cells, the first significant example of an animal virus grown outside of animals or chicken eggs. This work aided Jonas Salk in deriving a polio vaccine from deactivated polio viruses; this vaccine was shown to be effective in The first virus that could be crystalized and whose structure could therefore be elucidated in detail was tobacco mosaic virus TMV , the virus that had been studied earlier by Ivanovski and Beijerink.
In , Wendell Stanley achieved its crystallization for electron microscopy and showed that it remains active even after crystallization. Clear X-ray diffraction pictures of the crystallized virus were obtained by Bernal and Fankuchen in Based on such pictures, Rosalind Franklin proposed the full structure of the tobacco mosaic virus in From the s's, Chester M.
Southam , a leading virologist and cancer researcher, injected cancer patients, healthy individuals, and prison inmates from the Ohio Penitentiary with HeLa cancer cells in order to observe if cancer could be transmitted.
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Additionally, in hopes of creating a vaccine for cancer, he observed if the subjects could become immune to cancer by developing an acquired immune response. This experiment was highly controversial, as the cancer patient subjects were unaware that they were being injected with cancer cells.
In , the Hepatitis B virus was discovered by Baruch Blumberg who went on to develop a hepatitis B vaccine. In , Howard Temin described the first retrovirus : a virus whose RNA genome was reverse transcribed into complementary DNA cDNA , then integrated into the host's genome and expressed from that template. The viral enzyme reverse transcriptase , which along with integrase is a distinguishing trait of retroviruses, was first described in , independently by Howard Temin and David Baltimore.
The first retrovirus infecting humans was identified by Robert Gallo in Later it was found that reverse transcriptase is not specific to retroviruses; retrotransposons which code for reverse transcriptase are abundant in the genomes of all eukaryotes. In the functioning of oncoviruses was clarified considerably. Until that time, it was thought that these viruses carried certain genes called oncogenes which, when inserted into the host's genome, would cause cancer.
Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus showed that the oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus is in fact not specific to the virus but is contained in the genome of healthy animals of many species.
The oncovirus can switch this pre-existing benign proto-oncogene on, turning it into a true oncogene that causes cancer. In , Frederick Sanger achieved the first complete sequencing of the genome of any organism, the bacteriophage Phi X In the same year, Richard Roberts and Phillip Sharp independently showed that the genes of adenovirus contain introns and therefore require gene splicing.
It was later realized that almost all genes of eukaryotes have introns as well. A worldwide vaccination campaign led by the UN World Health Organization resulted in the eradication of smallpox in In , Stanley Prusiner discovered prions and showed that they cause scrapie.
Subsequent tremendous research efforts turned HIV into the best studied virus. Several antiretroviral drugs were developed in the late s, decreasing AIDS mortality dramatically in developed countries. The Hepatitis C virus was identified using novel molecular cloning techniques in , leading to screening tests that dramatically reduced the incidence of post- transfusion hepatitis. The first attempts at gene therapy involving viral vectors began in the early s, when retroviruses were developed that could insert a foreign gene into the host's genome.
They contained the foreign gene but did not contain the viral genome and therefore could not reproduce. Tests in mice were followed by tests in humans , beginning in The first human studies attempted to correct the genetic disease severe combined immunodeficiency SCID , but clinical success was limited. In the period from to , gene therapy was tried on several other diseases and with different viral vectors, but it became clear that the initially high expectations were overstated. In a further setback occurred when year-old Jesse Gelsinger died in a gene therapy trial.
He suffered a severe immune response after having received an adenovirus vector. In it was reported that poliovirus had been synthetically assembled in the laboratory, representing the first synthetic organism. Assembling the base genome from scratch, starting with the virus's published RNA sequence, took about two years.
In a faster method was shown to assemble the base genome of the bacteriophage Phi X in 2 weeks. The giant mimivirus , in some sense an intermediate between tiny prokaryotes and ordinary viruses, was described in and sequenced in The strain of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that killed up to 50 million people during the Spanish flu pandemic in was reconstructed in Sequence information was pieced together from preserved tissue samples of flu victims; viable virus was then synthesized from this sequence.
By , Harald zur Hausen had shown that two strains of Human papillomavirus HPV cause most cases of cervical cancer. Two vaccines protecting against these strains were released in In and it was reported that introducing a small number of specific transcription factor genes into normal skin cells of mice or humans can turn these cells into pluripotent stem cells , known as induced pluripotent stem cells. The technique uses modified retroviruses to transform the cells; this is a potential problem for human therapy since these viruses integrate their genes at a random location in the host's genome, which can interrupt other genes and potentially causes cancer.
In , Sputnik virophage was described, the first known virophage : it uses the machinery of a helper virus to reproduce and inhibits reproduction of that helper virus. Sputnik reproduces in amoeba infected by mamavirus , a relative of the mimivirus mentioned above and the largest known virus to date. An endogenous retrovirus ERV is a retrovirus whose genome has been permanently incorporated into the germ-line genome of some organism and that is therefore copied with each reproduction of that organism.